In order to understand the revolutionary concept behind zkSync, it's essential to know the fundamentals of Zero-Knowledge technology, so in this category, the primary focus will be on the idea of ​​ZK and why it is crucial in the context of zkSync.

Historically, privacy was almost implicit, because it was hard to find and gather information. But in the digital world, whether it's digital cameras or satellites or just what you click on, we need to have more explicit rules - not just for governments but for private companies. - Bill Gates.

A zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) is a mathematical method to verify the truth of information without revealing the information itself.

The easiest way to illustrate the core concept behind ZK is The Alibaba Cave.

TLDR: Victor(verifier) wants to know whether Peggy(prover) knows the password without revealing this word.

Peggy goes into the ring-shaped cave -> Victor enters the cave and shouts one of the paths A or B(randomly) -> If Peggy knows the password, she opens the door, if necessary, and returns along the desired path -> Given there is a 50% chance of guessing correctly, they repeat all process 20 times in a row -> chance of guessing becomes 1 in 2^20, or extremely small --> Victor concludes that Peggy knows the password. One more example for better understanding.

Benefits of ZK Proofs:

  • Proof of correct behavior in a protocol (crucial for blockchain)
  • Identification and digital rights (personal data and its safety)
  • Allow to verify "big" computations in a "short" time.

In terms of benefits for blockchain: to check the validity of transcactions nodes need to process each one of them. That`s where the problem with speed occurs. With ZK Proofs the verifier only needs to verify the proof data which is generated and sent by prover (very roughly: computation - offchain; verifying - onchain).

This is where zkSync comes into play. Protocol utilizes cryptographic validity proofs to ensure secure and cost-effective transactions on Ethereum. By verifying all transactions on the Ethereum mainchain, zkSync offers the same level of security as Ethereum.

zkSync Era(the latest Mainnet version) is designed to provide an Ethereum-like experience, but with reduced fees. Smart contracts can be written in Solidity/Vyper and accessed using the same clients as other EVM-compatible chains, just like on Ethereum.

To sum it up:

  • Zero Knowledge is a way to make blockchain more scalable and not losing in security
  • Security relies on validity proofs instead of fraud proofs(as in optimistic rollups)
  • Increase scalability -> speed
  • Reduce fees

This is just the tip of the iceberg. Additional deep dives will be provided in other categories. It is worth noting that zkSync doesn`t have its own token currently, but Matter Labs will decentralize the network(= token = potential rewards for early users) Show Less

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